BlastCAT is used to perform detailed 3D blast assessments of a building to determine the potential for structural damage and window breakage. BlastCAT satisfies the requirement to assess the performance of windows when subjected to the blast loading criteria specified by the General Services Administration (GSA) relating to bomb attacks on federal building.


The Blast Distant Focusing Overpressure (BlastDFO) suite computes risks associated with window breakage due to significant air blast resulting from a failed launch. Propagation of a blast wave is affected by variations in air density and terrain, which under some conditions can significantly focus energy on particular locations.


Increased overpressure at these locations leads to a higher probability of glass breakage. The tool models injuries from glass shard impact, which depends significantly on the size, number, and type of windows. A visualization interface assists in the understanding of risk estimates. The tool is often run pre-launch to assess launch availability. In the launch countdown phase, the latest atmospheric data is used.


Our Facility Siting Database and Analysis code (FSDAn) code is a GIS-based application used by petrochemical facilities to automate the preparation of a facility siting analysis. FSDAn incorporates OSHA requirements and the American Petroleum Institute’s (API) recommended practices. The tool enables assembly of flammable and toxic material inventories, structural and occupancy data, and potential blast locations. Hazard contours for blast, fire and toxic events are provided and building occupant risk is expressed as annual probabilities of various levels of injury.

The code allows siting of portable buildings and tents per API recommendations. A shutdown analysis enables the placement of temporary structures and tents closer to units under turnaround maintenance. Analysts successfully use several of the code’s features after a few hours of tuition.


HAZX is a standalone GUI/GIS based application used to assess the effects of an external explosion or a toxic chemical release on building occupants and evaluate blast mitigation schemes. HAZX’s explosion, consequence and risk modules were incorporated into the DoD Explosives Safety Board’s (DDESB’s) approved Explosives Safety Siting (ESS) Quantity-Distance (QD) software. Explosion assessments, including air blast and fragmentation, can be performed using, simplified, medium fidelity, or advanced consequence and risk models.

HAZX also incorporates a module to evaluate the effects of toxic chemical accidents: a) the ground spill of a single chemical and its dispersion due to evaporation, and b) the combustion products of a fuel/oxidizer at or above ground level (such as a missile accident).


Thousands of pounds of toxic rocket propellants can be released in a massive fireball if a vehicle fails.  Our Launch Area Toxic Risk Assessment-3D (LATRA3D) code is used by the Air Force and NASA to predict launch area toxic hazards and risks and helps the FAA define toxic hazard assessment protocols for commercial space launch regulations. It simulates the formation, buoyant rise and dispersion of exhaust clouds that occur during launch vehicle failure and normal flight. LATRA3D combines vehicle failure modes, failure rates, propellant combustion, flight dynamics, vehicle fragmentation, 3-dimensional windfields, population distributions, sheltering effects and human vulnerability to produce casualty expectations, risk profiles, and toxic hazard corridor information. The code provides risk mitigation insight, and supports range planning and launch operations.   

Load/Response Library

ACTA developed many fast running models (FRMs) to predict the response of structural components of buildings subjected to blast and fragment loads from cased munitions explosions. Traditional FRMs for these applications cannot handle fragment loads; our models capture them well. They are available as DLLs and software libraries to be called from other tools.  Models are available for:


  • Reinforced concrete walls (ARCWall), beams (ARCBEAM) , columns (ARCCol)

  • CMU walls (ACMUWall)

  • Brick, adobe, and SCT walls (ABRKWall)

  • Steel columns (ASTCol), beams (ASTBeam)

  • Infrastructure components such as electrical and HVAC systems (PE4COMPS)


The Range Risk Analysis Tool (RRAT) calculates and displays hazards and risks due to spacecraft and missile planned and malfunction debris. Hazards include inert impacts (direct as well as due to intact vehicle splatter and fragment bounce and roll), explosion effects, and fire. An intuitive user interface and automated graphing and mapping functions assists in organizing and validating input data. Two classes of models are provided: propagation of debris in and above the atmosphere and vulnerability modeling used to calculate risk. Debris propagation accounts for a wide variety of physical effects, including melting and burning. Statistical methods, for computing uncertainty in debris dispersions, include three-dimensional skew-normal and kernel density estimation. Fast-running vulnerability models are applied to determine structural damage, injuries to people inside buildings and outdoors, on ships, and in aircraft.


The Space Vehicle Operations – Hazard Risk and Management (SVO-HRAM) is a prototype tool to aid in improving the efficiency of the National Airspace System around launch and reentry vehicle operations. The SVO Concept focuses on integrating SV and aircraft operations, rather than segregating them. SVO-HRAM enables reactive separation in the case of vehicle failure. The tool is designed to automatically interface with other systems: space vehicle data as input and air traffic systems as output. It thus incorporates logic to appropriate process and maintain state knowledge of complex space missions during flight. Within seconds, the tool computes the hazard volumes associated with a failure, accounting for potential lack of information of failure response. This allows real-time aircraft maneuvering to avoid an actual debris field, instead of segregation from the area where a debris field may occur. The tool is currently used in experimental and demonstration form to evaluate management concepts, system architecture design, and calculation requirements.


The Trajectory Toolkit (TTK) imports, simulates and processes trajectory data to identify of time, position, and velocity of potential debris-generating and explosive events resulting from space vehicle flight. Typically, large collections of failure trajectories are analyzed, and thus TTK uses a database to store and manage the data. A key aspect of the tool is application of flight safety rules and vehicle structural limits to trajectories (trapping), which results in a collection of “breakup state vectors." From these breakup state vectors, subsequent calculations yield the hazards to risk-receptors and determines the consequences. TTK’s user interface allows convenient management and visualization of data and the operations performed. The interface also assists in the determination of flight safety rules and helps to ensure mission rules meet risk mitigation objectives.

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